Bad actors, general solicitors, and other troublemakersBy http://profile.typepad.com/1237764140s22740 // November 26, 2013 in Legal Docs, Reg D, Startup Law 101
Big, big changes to Reg D filing requirements are potentially in the works, ranging from dire penalties for failure to file, to prefiling requirements to crimp the efficiency of Rule 506(c) offerings.
But these changes to Reg D filing requirements are in the works. They may not happen. Or, if they happen, they may be other than the changes first proposed.
I'm thinking here primarily of the bad actor rule, now a part of Rule 506, and the renewed attention to general solicitation, which you want to track for purposes of reassuring yourself that you really are inside Rule 506(b) (which continues to prohibit general solicitation).
I thought it would be interesting to drive by how these changes to the law are being reflected in stock or convertible note purchase agreements.
Here's a bad actor rep and warranty from Bo Sartain - the party giving the rep here is the purchaser:
No Disqualification Events. Neither the Investor nor, to the extent it has them, any of its shareholders, members, managers, general or limited partners, directors, affiliates or executive officers (collectively with the Investor, the “Investor Covered Persons”), are subject to any Disqualification Event, except for a Disqualification Event covered by Rule 506(d)(2) or (d)(3). The Investor has exercised reasonable care to determine whether any Investor Covered Person is subject to a Disqualification Event. The purchase of the Shares by the Investor will not subject the Company to any Disqualification Event.
Pretty straightforward. A company asking an investor for such a rep may need to do more to look into whether the person is indeed a bad actor or not; but the rep doesn't hurt.
Investors, of course, may want a similar rep from the company - that the company's insiders don't include a bad actor.
And investors concerned with the risks of a 506(c) financing will ask the company for reassurance that it did not engage in general solicitation in connection with the offering (or any prior offering).
Here's an interesting rep from the model stock purchase agreement promulgated by the National Venture Capital Association. What makes it interesting is that purchaser, not the company, is giving assurances as to general solicitation:
No General Solicitation. Neither the Purchaser, nor any of its officers, directors, employees, agents, stockholders or partners has either directly or indirectly, including, through a broker or finder (a) engaged in any general solicitation, or (b) published any advertisement in connection with the offer and sale of the Shares.
Implicit here for companies is the suggestion that, not only do you have to take care to not generally solicit, but you may also need to worry about whatever tweeting or blogging your investors might engage in during the course of the offering.
Typesetting photo: Eva-Lotta Lamm / Flickr.